A study led by a researcher at Florida Atlantic University (FAU), with help from Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard University, Emory University, the University of Mississippi Medical Center, and the National Institutes of Health, took a look at the evening consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine among 785 individuals over a combined 5,164 days to see which had a greater impact on their sleeping habits. The subjects were an average of 63.7 years old, and were predominantly female (67.9%) with each individual being tracked for about 6 nights with wrist sensors and sleep diaries which recorded sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and how quickly people awoke after falling asleep
The research found that those who had an alcoholic drink within four hours of bedtime had one per cent worse sleep efficiency than nights when no alcohol was consumed. Evening nicotine use was associated with 1.74 per cent worse sleep efficiency, that added up to taking off a total of about 42 minutes of sleep time on average. And perhaps most surprising; the study determined that evening caffeine had no effect on sleep outcomes.
If you’re looking for a better nights sleep you might consider not consuming any alcohol or nicotine up to four hours before bed!